What do we mean by historical thinking? It’s the historian’s version of critical thinking:
Examine and analyze primary sources – who created it, when, for what purpose?
Understand historical context. Compare multiple accounts and perspectives.
Take a position and defend it with evidence.
What do we mean by close reading? Teachers can guide students with scaffolding questions that explore “texts” (in all their forms).
Key Ideas and Details: What does the text say? Identify the key ideas. What claims does the author make? What evidence does the author use to support those claims?
Craft and Structure: Who created the document? What’s their point of view / purpose? How did the text say it? How does it reflect its historic time period?
Integration of Knowledge and ideas: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. Recognize disparities between multiple accounts. Compare text to other media / genres. How does it connect to what we’re learning? And what’s it mean to me?
Let’s look at how a close reading of historical sources for craft and structure can integrate with the historical skill of sourcing - who created it, when, for what purpose?
Here’s a great illustration of historical sourcing from Stanford History Education Group’s Beyond the Bubble.
And here’s an exercise I used with teachers at a workshopthis past summer. Here’s the instructions they were given:
Create and post a source comparison. Be sure to include: Historical question and two sample sources.
Once other workshop members have posted their source comparison questions, use their content to answer the question: “Which do you trust more? Why?”
Feel free to add multiple answers to the same question and / or comment on each others question / or answer. It’s a dialogue.
Here’s a Google doc with my prompts and teacher responses.
Over the last few weeks my University of Portland EdMethods students have been designing lessons in historical thinking skills based on the work of Sam Wineburg and the Stanford History Education Group (SHEG). They focussed on three key skills – Sourcing, Contextualizing and Corroborating.
The lessons were designed in a shared Google presentation. Below you will find the project workflow and links to each lesson as an individual blog post.
With that background, students spent a portion of our next class deconstructing a few of the assessments found in SHEG’s Beyond the Bubble. They were asked to find three questions that focus on any of these skills: Sourcing, Contextualizing and Corroborating. With their team they explored how the assessments are designed:
How many historic sources, what types?
What additional information are students given?
How many prompts?
What are students asked to do?
How is the assessment designed to support the skills?
Be prepared to share your finding with the whole class.
Design your own lesson:
Students were then assigned to design their own historical thinking lesson based on the Beyond the Bubble assessment model. They used a shared Google presentation to host their lesson. Since not all students were familiar with Google tools, I used SnagIt to create a YouTube playlist: Working with Google Presentation
Guidelines for the lesson included:
Title slide for your mini-lesson. Make it catchy!
Your name as author of the mini-lesson on your lesson title
Target students – by grade level
Indication of one (or more) of the historic skills to be studied – Sourcing, Contextualization, Corroborating
One or more historic documents. Text, image and videos can be inserted into the slide. Longer documents can be linked to via URL or saved in Google drive with link to it.
Source URLs for all documents used
Guiding questions for students to use with document(s)
Brief description of how the document(s) and question(s) should reinforce the targeted historic skill(s)
Peer Review / Reflection / Blog post
Atour next class, students did some peer editing of each other’s lesson using Google doc’s comment feature. They used the peer feedback to do a final version of their lesson. Students were then asked to write a brief reflection on the process – it could include their take on historic thinking, the specific lesson model borrowed from SHEG, working with a shared Google presentation, peer review process, etc. They then used the content from their lesson (plus their reflection) to write an authored post for our class blog.